Masculinity

Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women’s values differ less among societies than men’s values; (b) men’s values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women’s values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women’s values on the other. The assertive pole has been called ‘masculine’ and the modest, caring pole ‘feminine’.

For example, Germany has a masculine culture with a 66 on the scale of Hofstede (Netherlands 14). Masculine traits include assertiveness, materialism/material success, self-centeredness, power, strength, and individual achievements. The United States scored a 62 on Hofstedeā€™s scale. So these two cultures share, in terms of masculinity, similar values.

Power Distance Index | Individualism | Masculinity | Uncertainty Avoidance Index | Long-Term Orientation

Masculinity
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120

Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO

Japan 54 46 95 92 80
Hungary 46 55 88 82
Austria 11 55 79 70
Venezuela 81 12 73 76
Italy 50 76 70 75
Switzerland 34 68 70 58
Mexico 81 30 69 82
Ireland 28 70 68 35
Jamaica 45 39 68 13
China 80 20 66 40 118
Germany 35 67 66 65 31
United Kingdom 35 89 66 35 25
Colombia 67 13 64 80
Philippines 94 32 64 44 19
Poland 68 60 64 93
Ecuador 78 8 63 67
South Africa 49 65 63 49
United States 40 91 62 46 29
Australia 36 90 61 51 31
New Zealand 22 79 58 49 30
Czech Republic 57 58 57 74
Greece 60 35 57 112
Hong Kong 68 25 57 29 96
Argentina 49 46 56 86
India 77 48 56 40 61
Belgium 65 75 54 94
Egypt 80 38 52 68
Iraq 80 38 52 68
Kuwait 80 38 52 68
Lebanon 80 38 52 68
Libya 80 38 52 68
Saudi Arabia 80 38 52 68
United Arab Emirates 80 38 52 68
Malaysia 104 26 50 36
Pakistan 55 14 50 70
Brazil 69 38 49 76 65
Singapore 74 20 48 8 48
Israel 13 54 47 81
Ghana 77 20 46 54 16
Indonesia 78 14 46 48
Nigeria 77 20 46 54 16
Sierra Leone 77 20 46 54 16
Taiwan 58 17 45 69 87
Turkey 66 37 45 85
Panama 95 11 44 86
France 68 71 43 86
Iran 58 41 43 59
Peru 64 16 42 87
Spain 57 51 42 86
Ethiopia 64 27 41 52 25
Kenya 64 27 41 52 25
Tanzania 64 27 41 52 25
Zambia 64 27 41 52 25
El Salvador 66 19 40 94
South Korea 60 18 39 85 75
Uruguay 61 36 38 100
Guatemala 95 6 37 101
Thailand 64 20 34 64 56
Portugal 63 27 31 104
Chile 63 23 28 86
Finland 33 63 26 59
Costa Rica 35 15 21 86
Denmark 18 74 16 23
Netherlands 38 80 14 53 44
Norway 31 69 8 50 20
Sweden 31 71 5 29 33

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