Long-Term Orientation

Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension of Hofstede which was added after the original four to try to distinguish the difference in thinking between the East and West. From the original IBM studies, this difference was something that could not be deduced. Therefore, Hofstede created a Chinese value survey which was distributed across 23 countries. From these results, and with an understanding of the influence of the teaching of Confucius on the East, long term vs. short term orientation became the fifth cultural dimension.

Below are some characteristics of the two opposing sides of this dimension:

Long term orientation
-persistence
-ordering relationships by status and observing this order
-thrift
-having a sense of shame

Short term orientation
-personal steadiness and stability
-protecting your ‘face’
-respect or tradition
-reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts

Power Distance Index | Individualism | Masculinity | Uncertainty Avoidance Index |
Long-Term Orientation

Long term Orientation
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120

Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO

China 80 20 66 40 118
Hong Kong 68 25 57 29 96
Taiwan 58 17 45 69 87
Japan 54 46 95 92 80
South Korea 60 18 39 85 75
Brazil 69 38 49 76 65
India 77 48 56 40 61
Thailand 64 20 34 64 56
Singapore 74 20 48 8 48
Netherlands 38 80 14 53 44
Sweden 31 71 5 29 33
Australia 36 90 61 51 31
Germany 35 67 66 65 31
New Zealand 22 79 58 49 30
United States 40 91 62 46 29
Ethiopia 64 27 41 52 25
Kenya 64 27 41 52 25
Tanzania 64 27 41 52 25
United Kingdom 35 89 66 35 25
Zambia 64 27 41 52 25
Norway 31 69 8 50 20
Philippines 94 32 64 44 19
Ghana 77 20 46 54 16
Nigeria 77 20 46 54 16
Sierra Leone 77 20 46 54 16
Argentina 49 46 56 86
Austria 11 55 79 70
Belgium 65 75 54 94
Chile 63 23 28 86
Colombia 67 13 64 80
Costa Rica 35 15 21 86
Czech Republic 57 58 57 74
Denmark 18 74 16 23
Ecuador 78 8 63 67
Egypt 80 38 52 68
El Salvador 66 19 40 94
Finland 33 63 26 59
France 68 71 43 86
Greece 60 35 57 112
Guatemala 95 6 37 101
Hungary 46 55 88 82
Indonesia 78 14 46 48
Iran 58 41 43 59
Iraq 80 38 52 68
Ireland 28 70 68 35
Israel 13 54 47 81
Italy 50 76 70 75
Jamaica 45 39 68 13
Kuwait 80 38 52 68
Lebanon 80 38 52 68
Libya 80 38 52 68
Malaysia 104 26 50 36
Mexico 81 30 69 82
Pakistan 55 14 50 70
Panama 95 11 44 86
Peru 64 16 42 87
Poland 68 60 64 93
Portugal 63 27 31 104
Saudi Arabia 80 38 52 68
South Africa 49 65 63 49
Spain 57 51 42 86
Switzerland 34 68 70 58
Turkey 66 37 45 85
United Arab Emirates 80 38 52 68
Uruguay 61 36 38 100
Venezuela 81 12 73 76

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